Most of us are familiar with workflow approval processes using SharePoint. These are targeted towards efficiently routing items for approval usually in a serial fashion with known actors. However, a great deal of information work is done through collaborative processes. And usually, this work has a large impact on organizational results. The key here is to be organizationally effective. In this article, I’ll define collaborative processes and look at a general design approach that includes not just the core process but the “external” people and activities that drive a higher degree of organizational effectiveness.
What I Mean by Collaborative Processes
Collaborative processes are ways of working where the work progresses through stages that involve a number of people and activities. Basically, individuals are often not the decision makers. Rather, work progresses via collaborative group decision making. Often these processes are oriented towards making the right (or at least a better) decision through collaboration and incorporating relevant activities. Examples of such processes are:
- Demand Management: New Project Initiation – onramp to project management
- Business Development-Capture and Proposal Management – working the process of responding to RFP’s/tendors
- Policy Management – getting policies out and incorporating feedback
- R&D Innovation – managing R&D proposals through the funnel
- Idea Management – the process of capturing, reviewing and deciding on new ideas
The Core Process
When you go about designing such processes, in a SharePoint context, most people initially focus on the core process. This is typically a single SharePoint site. Usually, the process is defined as a set of stages for items to pass through (see this article for a more detailed discussion of stage-based applications). In each stage, items are acted upon, people weigh in, and, an item must pass through a gate to move to the next stage. The main participants are the core process members. CorasWorks adds various features to this core process to enable and enhance collaboration amongst these participants.
In most situations, this core process meets the expected requirements. Just getting this done is worth declaring victory for your team. However, we have found that organizations are usually able to make the process more effective by going beyond this core process and incorporating external people and activities in their overall design of their system.
Broader Perspective of Collaborative Process
Below is a schematic illustrating a broader perspective of your collaborative process. The items in green are the expected elements. You have the core process and the engagement of the “standard” process members. The three other elements (in blue) extend the process to engage additional people and activities to flesh out the system. I’ll discuss each of these three extended elements below.
Imagine you are part of a product team. You all have your ideas. You put a process in place to enable your product group to work on them in a more collaborative way. This works. However, you could broaden your scope of who is engaged in three ways to improve the effectiveness. First, you could open up the idea funnel to enable people outside of the group to submit ideas. Second, you can make those ideas visible to the broad community and allow them to collaborate and enhance the ideas – outside of your control. Third, you can vet your ideas with the external community. In effect, you take your internal idea and push it out to the broad community or to external targeted groups – allowing them to also engage with other in vetting your idea.
Simply, you are taking your black box process, that has historically been fully controlled by the few and opening it up to external communities. The objective is to drive effectiveness by a broader set of eyes and experiences on the idea.
Supporting Activities and Teams
You are working to get things through your process. Within each stage there are various activities. Most are done by the process members. But often, the activities involve people that are outside of the core process membership. Imagine that you are working on business development proposals and you need to resource people. You may want to drop in a programmatic activity that engages HR and other “sources” of people to check the box on the required people resources.
Some of these activities can be ad hoc. Others that are common to your process deserve a more permanent and structured way of working. In a SharePoint context, it is important to note that others work where and how they work. So, HR might want your activity to nicely become a part of their place and way of working rather then HR folks having to go to your place and work your way. Thus, you agree on how to work, and then, drop in the element to tie your process activity to their work space. Over time these “activities” of your process start to become standard ways of working amongst a broader group of people.
Downstream Activities and Teams
So, your process is all set and you start processing. Imagine that you are working to drive new projects for products and services. At the end of your process, the approved projects appear in your Portfolio. You are done – right? Yet, the project is not. So, what you now need is a nice, effective handoff from your process to the next downstream activity, maybe the PMO to handle a group of like projects, or, to a project manager.
The key to the handoff is to do it in a programmatic manner and set it up so that the receiver of the handoff has access to the information and decisions that were made upstream. Likewise, as they do their work on the project, you’d want a certain access to or flow of information back to you to keep track of the results of your decision and help you improve the effectiveness of your process.
As you define this you are again starting to define a broader “workstream” of related activities. As a design note, these types of workstream are loosely coupled. This means that each process/activity can live on its own but connects to the other upstream and downstream activities.
Take a Broader Perspective, Start Small and Allow it To Evolve
Collaborative processes are very important to organization success. You need them to be effective because you are making decisions with a broad impact. By all means, start by focusing in on the core process and getting the stages and basic activities right. However, step back and consider the three additional elements outlined above early in your thinking. This broader perspective will enable you to design more effective processes. As always, I’d say think broadly, start small, and evolve. The best processes evolve forward with input, lessons learned, and, results. CorasWorks provides you with the flexibility to start simply and enhance and extend your system to add the new elements – take advantage of it.